What happens after the Sun dies?Junkyl32 - 6 Answers
There are many ways a star can die.
The idea is mainly that eventually the star will generate too much energy for its gravity to hold and expand outward. Once this expansion reaches the limit the outward energy will explode and blow off much of the star, destroying any leftover matter within that reach. Then what remains is a white-hot dwarf star and it begins the stellar ignition process over again as the matter fragments around it begin to coalesce into planets again.
If not enough energy is contained to begin the stellar ignition process then the star is left in an extremely dense state with a "cool" center until it is captured or absorbed into another system. Any surrounding matter surviving the explosion (planets, asteroids, etc...) in this situation is lost as the star no longer can maintain the gravity to keep them in orbit.
I hope that helps!
The sun (Sol) won't simply 'switch off'. Instead, the sun's luminosity (or brightness) will increase. This will cause an increase in solar radiation, which in turn is expected to begin reducing carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere. In about 600 million years from now carbon dioxide will have fallen to such a degree that photosynthesis will start to become problematic. This will continue until all plant-life dies. When this happens, animal life will also die as plants are the foundation of the food-chain. The sun's luminosity continues to increase, and in about 1.1 billion years the oceans will evaporate. Later, the Eath's magnetosphere will collapse, and the atmosphere will begin to be eroded. In about 7.5 billion years the sun will run out of hydrogen and become a red giant. Though it sounds counter-intuitive, this will begin a process of expansion so great that the sun will expand massively. The expansion will be so great as to likely consume all the inner planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.
The Earth will survive for a long time, but all sophisticated will likely be extinct in about 600 million years, assuming that no other events have occurred to render it extinct before then.
The hypothesis is that the sun will cool down and grow in size until it becomes a red giant. At this point, it will consume Mercury, Venus, Earth, and, likely, Mars as well. Even before that, the sun's growth will cause all of the water on Earth to evaporate.
Will this be the end of terrestrial life, though? Perhaps not, if we develop ways to live off of the planet. We could, theoretically, move the human, animal, and plant life to Saturn, or to one of the moons of Jupiter, or perhaps even farther. Alternatively, we could find a way to move the planet into a wider orbit. Perhaps we could move it to an orbit between Jupiter and Saturn, or Saturn and Uranus, and continue life there.
Eventually, however, we would need to either move to a different star system with a younger sun or find other ways to power our planet, as after the red giant phase, the sun will shrink down to become a white dwarf. It is possible that some kind of life may be able to survive this phase, but unless we can build an artificial sun of some sort, most of the forms of life currently in existence on our planet would die under those conditions.
Thanks for your answers, I know the Earth will be gone, and that life will cease to exist, my question is about the other planets and what happens after the Sun turns into a white dwarf.
The circle of life part was just a comparison, sorry for the confusion.
The sun will expand to a huge huge size. The earth will be absorbed in to it, and life will cease to exist on this planet. Eventually the sun will die and turn in to a white dwarf....
Well, life would just cease to exist here. When the sun dies, it will start getting hotter and bigger. So all life would already be dead before it actually "dies"....